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What Have PRCHN Faculty and Staff Been up To?
PRCHN Associate Director Darcy Freedman, PhD, and Affiliated Faculty Claudia Coulton, PhD, are two co-authors of Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research, a reference guide that compiles and organizes key measures for community research. Publication date is July 2018, however, the book is available for pre-order on the Sage Publications website.

What is the book about?
Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research is a reference guide that compiles and organizes key measures for community research. There are many measures commonly available, but they can be difficult to locate and evaluate.  Mary L. Ohmer, Claudia Coulton, Darcy A. Freedman, Joanne L. Sobeck, and Jamie Booth compile the major measures of community practice and assess them for reliability and validity. The book is divided into major areas of measurement, including: methods of measurement, connections in community, community engagement, resources and issues, community organizing and social action, and measures of unequal access. Each measure includes a definition, theoretical frameworks, evaluation, and a description of how the measure has been used. The goal of this text is to provide students, professors, researchers and community-based practitioners with a helpful resource to locate, compare and utilize community and neighborhood measures. This book can be used by research institutions as well as the numerous non-profit agencies and other public and private organizations who work to improve conditions in communities and neighborhoods.  

Trapl ES; Pike SN; Borawski E; Flocke SA; Freedman DA; Walsh CC; Schneider C; Yoder L. Food melt in consumer food environments in low-income urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2017 Nov 1;41(6):710-718. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.41.6.5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29025499

What is the article about?
The researchers systematically evaluated changes in availability, price, and quality of perishable food items from the beginning to the end of the month in low-income, urban neighborhoods. The sample included grocery stores or supermarkets in Cleveland, Ohio, within neighborhoods with >30% of population receiving food assistance. We examined difference in number and proportion of items available at the beginning of the month (BOM) to items remaining available at the end of the month (EOM), as well as quality and price of those items. Across 48 stores, availability at EOM was lower than BOM; as store size increased, reduction in availability (ie, food melt) was significantly (p < .01) less pronounced. Overall, items became less expensive at the EOM whereas quality remained consistent; we noted no statistically significant differences by store type for price or quality. Food melt differentially affects individuals in neighborhoods without grocery stores. Findings reveal composition of food environments is dynamic rather than static, influencing food-purchasing choices among low-income consumers.

Kakul Joshi, Samantha Smith, Shari Bolen, Amanda Osborne, Michele Benko, Erika S.Trapl. Implementing a produce prescription program for hypertensive patients in safety net clinics. Health Promotion Practice. In press.
What is the article about?
The manuscript describes implementation of a unique produce prescription program for patients with hypertension (PRxHTN) involving three safety net clinics and 20 farmers' markets. Several strategies are highlighted that can be used to prepare for and overcome implementation challenges and provide further insight into the factors that may contribute to potential success of community-clinical linkage programs
Trapl, Erika and Koopman Gonzalez, Sarah J. (2017) "Adolescent Marijuana Use and Co-Occurrence with Tobacco Use: Implications for Tobacco Regulation," Journal of Applied Research on Children: Informing Policy for Children at Risk: Vol. 8 : Iss. 2 , Article 4. 

Key takeaways from this work:
  • The majority of adolescent marijuana users report using marijuana as a blunt.
  • Mode of marijuana use is related to different tobacco product use, with cigar users more likely to smoke marijuana in a blunt and hookah users more likely to some marijuana in a joint, bong, or blunt.
  • Regulation of alternative tobacco products could affect marijuana use.
Jones, S.J., Draper, C.L., Bell, B.A., Burke, M.P., Martini, L., Younginer, N., Blake, C.E., Probst, J., Freedman, D., & Liese, A.D. (in press). Child hunger from a family resilience perspective. Journal of Hunger and Environmental Nutrition. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19320248.2017.1364189?journalCode=when20
What is the article about?
Eliminating food insecurity among children is a priority in the US; research that focuses on the resilience and agency of families can help refocus our programs and policies. The Midlands Family Study was a cross-sectional study of 544 families that were food secure, food insecure, or experiencing food insecurity with child hunger who completed a survey interview between March 2012 and May 2013. Using the Family, Adjustment, Adaptation, and Response theory as our guide and multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that negative life events, economic capabilities (income, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefit levels), and social capabilities (support) were associated with food security status. For every additional $100 of income or SNAP benefits, the odds of the family having a child that experienced hunger in the past year were reduced by 6% and 9%, respectively. The results suggest families dealing with negative life events with inadequate income and social support are particularly vulnerable to child hunger. We did not find evidence to support that changing attitudes, strengthening faith, or reducing already low financial obligations affected food security status. 
Associate Director Darcy Freedman, PhD, MPH, will be part of a panel discussion entitled Farmers Market Programming for Limited-Resource Households at the 2018 SNEB Annual Conference in Minneapolis, MN. Other panelists include Jennifer Garner, RD; Cornell University; Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, PhD; East Carolina University; Carrie Durward, PhD RD; Utah State University. The panel will be moderated by Mateja R. Savoie Roskos, PhD MPH RD; Utah State University.

What is the panel about?
Farmer’s market programming for limited-resource households can directly support local, regional, and sustainable food systems. Through such programming, eligible individuals are encouraged to spend their nutrition assistance benefits at farmers markets and to purchase locally-grown fruit and vegetables. In this session, we will describe and discuss ongoing research related to the use, promotion, costs, and effectiveness of these programs in contexts across the U.S. Lessons learned will be directly relevant to research, nutrition education, and policy systems and environment programming in this area.

Koopman Gonzalez, S; Trapl, E; Antognoli, E; Ishler, K; Cavallo, D; Lim, R; Pagano, M; Marino, J;  and Flocke, S. “I got a little addiction:”Cigarillo users’ self-perceptions of habit and addiction. Society for Applied Anthropology 2018 Annual Meeting. April 3-7, 2018, Philadelphia, PA.

What is this presentation about?
This presentation examines smokers’ perceptions of and identification with habit and addiction using interviews with 60 adolescent and young adult cigarillo users. All participants described the concept of addiction similarly. Participants reporting only a habit and those reporting an addiction did not differ by demographics or tobacco use. However, smokers reporting an addiction had higher nicotine dependence scores. Although cessation experiences did not differ by group, a perceived ability to quit was a common reason for not identifying with an addiction. Deeper understanding of self-perceptions that distinguish addiction from habit can inform targeted interventions to encourage cessation.
Other Honors
Affiliated Faculty Heidi L. Gullett, MD, MPH, has been installed as the inaugural Charles Kent Smith, MD and Patricia Hughes Moore, MD, Professor of Medical Student Education in Family Medicine. 

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