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What Have PRCHN Faculty and Staff Been up To?
Awards and Honors            Publications            Presentations
Associate Director Erika Trapl, PhD, has been promoted to Associate Professor at CWRU.

FreshLink Program Manager Rachael Sommer has been accepted into Case Western Reserve University's Womens Staff Leadership Development class of 2019. 

IMPACT Navigator Rachel Gardenhire was interviewed by 7th grade students from Cleveland's Citizen's Leadership Academy about her work with the IMPACT study as part of a school project called "Rustbelt Reformers," which focuses on local innovators, inventors, and reformers who have worked to make Cleveland a better place to live. Read her interview (and others) online. 
Student Neha Gupta with her prize-winning poster from the OPHA conferenceStudent Neha Gupta's poster "Examining the Compliance of the Tobacco 21 Policy in Cleveland, Ohio," won 2nd place at the Ohio Public Health Association (OPHA) annual conference in May 2018. Affiliated faculty Scott Frank, MS, MD, and PRCHN Associate Director Erika Trapl, PhD, were co-authors on the poster.

PRCHN Communications & Dissemination Specialist Susan Petrone was interviewed by the Case Western Reserve University Daily and by local NPR station WCPN on the publication of her third novel, The Super Ladies.

PRCHN Associate Director Darcy Freedman, PhD, and Affiliated Faculty Claudia Coulton,PhD, are two co-authors of Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research, a reference guide that compiles and organizes key measures for community research. It is published by Sage Publications.

What is this book about?
Measures for Community and Neighborhood Research is a reference guide that compiles and organizes key measures for community research. There are many measures commonly available, but they can be difficult to locate and evaluate.  Mary L. Ohmer, Claudia Coulton, Darcy A. Freedman, Joanne L. Sobeck, and Jamie Booth compile the major measures of community practice and assess them for reliability and validity. The book is divided into major areas of measurement, including: methods of measurement, connections in community, community engagement, resources and issues, community organizing and social action, and measures of unequal access. Each measure includes a definition, theoretical frameworks, evaluation, and a description of how the measure has been used. The goal of this text is to provide students, professors, researchers and community-based practitioners with a helpful resource to locate, compare and utilize community and neighborhood measures. This book can be used by research institutions as well as the numerous non-profit agencies and other public and private organizations who work to improve conditions in communities and neighborhoods.  

Trapl ES, Koopman Gonzalez SJ, Fryer CS.  Adolescent Dual-Product Users: Acquisition and situational use of cigarettes and cigars.  Drug and Alcohol Dependence. July 2018 188:356-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.04.007

What is this article about?
Little is known about how adolescents who smoke both cigarettes and cigar products obtain and use these products. This study sought to explore cigarette and cigar acquisition and situational use among high school smokers. Data are drawn from the 2011 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Analysis was limited to youth who smoke cigarettes as well as cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars (CCLC) in the past month (N = 649). Consumption of both products was calculated and used to create four subtypes of users based on high or low use of each product. Current users were asked to identify situations in which they use cigarettes and CCLCs and ways in which they obtain these products. Youth reported acquiring cigarettes and CCLC in similar ways, although youth were more likely to take cigarettes from family members than CCLC (11.1% vs. 4.8%). Several differences were observed between cigarettes and CCLC for situational use. While both products are frequently used in social situations (e.g., with friends), cigarettes were more likely to be used in solitary situations (e.g., before bed). Further, significant differences were observed among the four user subtypes.  Study results highlight important, nuanced differences regarding how young multi-tobacco users obtain and the situational use of such products. Importantly, these findings vary by user subtype, informing future interventions to prevent and reduce smoking among the most vulnerable subgroups of youth.

Borawski, E., Jones, S.*, Yoder, L., Taylor, T., Clint, B., Goodwin, M., Trapl, E.  We Run This City: Impact of a Community-School Fitness Program on Obesity, Health and Fitness.  Original Research Article. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2018;15:160471. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd15.160471.

What is this article about?
The We Run This City (WRTC) Youth Marathon Program is a community-supported, school-based fitness program designed to increase physical activity in a large, urban school district by engaging middle school youth to train 12 to 14 weeks to run or walk 1.2 miles, 6.2 miles, or 13.1 miles of the Cleveland Marathon. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of the intervention on adolescent health. We assessed changes in obesity, health, and fitness, measured before training and post-intervention among 1,419 sixth- to eighth-grade students participating in WRTC for the first time, with particular interest in the program’s effect on overweight (85th–94th body mass index percentile) or obese (=95th percentile) students. Outcomes of interest were body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), elevated blood pressure, and fitness levels evaluated by using the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test and the sit-to-stand test. We saw significant improvements overall in fitness and blood pressure. Controlling for demographics, program event, and training dosage, BMI percentile increased among normal weight participants and decreased among overweight and obese participants (P  < .001). WHR increased among obese participants, whereas reductions in blood pressure among those with elevated blood pressure were associated with higher amounts of training and lower baseline BMI. 

Kumar N, Colon-Zimmermann K, Fuentes-Casiano E, Liu E, Tatsuoka C, Cassidy KA, Kahriman M, Chen P, Sajatovic M. Clinical Correlates of Negative Health Events in a Research Sample with Epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Feb;79:225-229. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2017.11.037. Epub 2017 Dec 24.

What is this article about?
In spite of advances in care, people with epilepsy experience negative health events (NHEs), such as seizures, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. Being able to identify characteristics that are associated with NHE risk can help inform care approaches that reduce complications and burden. This analysis used baseline data from a larger randomized epilepsy self-management clinical trial to assess the relationship between demographic and clinical variables vs. seizure-related complications among people with epilepsy. Data were derived from a baseline sample of a larger prospective study of 120 individuals with epilepsy who experienced an NHE within the last six months. Consistent with previous literature, more frequent seizures were associated with worse depression severity and quality of life. A finding that is less established is that higher seizure frequency is also associated with worse epilepsy-related stigma. Epilepsy self-management approaches need to address depression and stigma as well as seizure control.

Trapl ES, Koopman Gonzalez S.* Attitudes and Risk Perceptions toward Smoking among Adolescents who Modify Cigar Products. Ethnicity & Disease, 2018;28(3):135-144; doi:10.18865/ ed.28.3.135.  https://ethndis.org/edonline/index.php/ethndis/article/view/895

What is this article about?
This descriptive cross-sectional study examines high school youths’ perceptions of health risks, and personal and parental attitudes toward cigarette, cigar, and marijuana use among youth who use or modify cigars. The 2013 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior Survey used a two-stage cluster sample design to randomly sample public high schools and classrooms. Students in selected classrooms were eligible; 16,855 students completed the survey. This study ex­amines the association between risk percep­tions of and youths’ personal and parental attitudes toward smoking cigarettes, cigars, and marijuana with current use of cigars, cigarillos or little cigars (CCLCs) or modified CCLCs (ie, freaking or blunting). 23.5% of youth reported current use of CCLCs in some way; 11.0% reported current freaking and 18.5% reported current blunt use. CCLC users tended to be male and Black. Perceiving all smoking behav­iors as risky, wrong, or wrong by parents reduced odds of using CCLCs. After multi­variate analysis, Blacks had increased odds of using CCLCs if they perceived smoking cigarettes as harmful, which was not found among other race/ethnicity categories. Having parents who believed that smoking CCLCs is wrong increased the odds of youth freaking or blunting among all CCLC users. Odds of blunting was greater for those who believed CCLCs were more risky among all CCLC users. These findings suggest that CCLC users may think cigars are safer than cigarettes, and that modifiers may think their use is safer and more in line with their parents’ views than non-modified CCLCs.

Antognoli E, Koopman Gonzalez S, Trapl ES, Cavallo D, Lim R, Lavanty B, Flocke SA. Cigarettes and little cigars/cigarillos: initiation, motivation and decision-making. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Volume 20, Issue suppl_1, 14 August 2018, Pages S5–S11. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nty099. 

What is this article about?
Cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs) are the most prevalent dual-use tobacco combination; one-third of cigarette smokers use LCCs. Risk factors for multiple tobacco product use have been reported; however, there is little understanding of why some individuals transition to and maintain multiple product use. In this study, we examine narratives of tobacco product initiation and decision-making among LCC-only and LCC-cigarette smokers.
Monica Webb Hooper. Preventing Tobacco-Related Cancer Disparities: A Focus on Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations. Ethnicity & Disease. 2018;28(3):129-132; doi:10.18865/ed.28.3.129.

Parsons, A.A., Monteban, M., Lee, E., Bebo, P., Zubieta, A.C., Ginetti, S., Hewitt, J., & Freedman, D. Indicators of Readiness and Capacity for Implementation of Healthy Eating Strategies in Childcare Settings Serving Low-income Children. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior.  (in press)

Associate Director Darcy Freedman, PhD, MPH, was part of a panel discussion entitled Farmers Market Programming for Limited-Resource Households at the 2018 SNEB Annual Conference in Minneapolis, MN. (July 21-24). Other panelists included Jennifer Garner, RD; Cornell University; Stephanie Jilcott Pitts, PhD; East Carolina University; Carrie Durward, PhD RD; Utah State University. The panel was moderated by Mateja R. Savoie Roskos, PhD MPH RD; Utah State University.
What was the panel about?
Farmer’s market programming for limited-resource households can directly support local, regional, and sustainable food systems. Through such programming, eligible individuals are encouraged to spend their nutrition assistance benefits at farmers markets and to purchase locally-grown fruit and vegetables. In this session, we will describe and discuss ongoing research related to the use, promotion, costs, and effectiveness of these programs in contexts across the U.S. Lessons learned will be directly relevant to research, nutrition education, and policy systems and environment programming in this area.

Koopman Gonzalez, S; Trapl, E; Antognoli, E; Ishler, K; Cavallo, D; Lim, R; Pagano, M; Marino, J;  and Flocke, S. “I got a little addiction:”Cigarillo users’ self-perceptions of habit and addiction. Society for Applied Anthropology 2018 Annual Meeting. April 3-7, 2018, Philadelphia, PA.

What was this presentation about?
This presentation examines smokers’ perceptions of and identification with habit and addiction using interviews with 60 adolescent and young adult cigarillo users. All participants described the concept of addiction similarly. Participants reporting only a habit and those reporting an addiction did not differ by demographics or tobacco use. However, smokers reporting an addiction had higher nicotine dependence scores. Although cessation experiences did not differ by group, a perceived ability to quit was a common reason for not identifying with an addiction. Deeper understanding of self-perceptions that distinguish addiction from habit can inform targeted interventions to encourage cessation.

Jean Frank, Manager of School-Based Surveillance and Education, was part of the Cleveland: A Community Committed to Our Children Realizing [Health] Potential panel at the Schubert Center for Child Studies 20th Anniversary Symposium on April 27. You can watch her panel online.

REACH Project Manager Anna Thornton Matos was a panelist at the City Club of Cleveland on  "Why Does Soda Cost Less Than Water at the Corner Store? A College Forum Symposium" on June 13.  You can watch the full forum online.

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